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What is Referencing?
Referencing is acknowledging the source of information or ideas you have employed in your writing.

What requires Referencing?
  • Somebody else's words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium.

  • Information gained through interviewing another person.

  • Exact words or a "unique phrase" from somewhere.

  • Diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures.

  • Ideas that others have given you in conversations or over email.

What is Plagiarism?
  • The use of other people's ideas and writing without acknowledgement.

  • Plagiarism involves taking another person's ideas, words or inventions and presenting them as your own.

  • Rewording another person's work, without acknowledging its source, is also plagiarism.


  • The taking of another person's ideas, writings or inventions and using them as your own is considered 'academic theft'

Why do you need to Reference?

* To distinguish your own ideas from those of someone else.

* To cite different points of view.

* To validate what you are writing, by referring to documented evidence

* To support your argument and add credibility to your writing.

* To inform readers of the scope and depth of your reading.

* To integrate information by assessing, comparing, contrasting or evaluating it, to show understanding.

* To emphasise a position that you agree or disagree with.

* To highlight a pertinent point by quoting the original.

* To enable readers to consult the original source independently. (For instance the interpretation you give may be different from the one intended)

* You must acknowledge the source of any information to avoid plagiarism.

Where do you need to Reference?

There are two complementary aspects to referencing:

Referencing within the text:

In-text citation - all material sourced from another author, whether it is directly quoted or paraphrased, must be referenced in the text

The Reference List or a Bibliography at the end of the text:

A Reference List or Bibliography should appear at the end of your work. It should include all the sources that you refer to in the body of your text as well as all material that you have consulted in your research and that informs your thinking.

It can include:
  • Books
  • Magazines and newspaper articles
  • Journal articles
  • Electronic sources
  • Video and film
  • Radio and television program
  • Interviews
  • Music

How to CITE IN-TEXT - HARVARD STYLE

1. NOT a direct quote but indicates the source of your ideas. This format consists of author(s) and year of publication.



EXAMPLE
At first, many students will naturally have difficulty using Harvard referencing style. (Smith & Bruce 1997)

2. A direct quote must be include the page number of the quote or passage in your in-text citation.
You must also put the quote in double "quotation marks".





EXAMPLE

"Students often had difficulty using Harvard referencing style, especially when it was their first time" (Smith & Bruce 1997, p.8)

OR
3. Incorporated

Example
Smith & Bruce (1997) found "students often had difficulty using Harvard referencing style" (p.8); what implications does this have for teachers?
All in-text citations must also be referenced in full in your Reference List at the end of your paper



How to set out a Reference List - HARVARD STYLE


BOOKS

Include the following information in the correct order:
Author’s surname, author’s firstname or intial (Year of publication in brackets) Title of book: sub title of book (in italics), Publisher, place of publication.

Example:
Rowling, J.K. (2007) Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Bloomsbury, London.


BOOKS with more than one author:

Example:
Elwood, Ann, and Wood, L. C. (2002) Windows in Space, Walker, New York.


BOOKS (edited):

Editors Surname, editors first name or initial (ed.) (Year of publication) Title of book: sub title of book (in italics), Publisher, Place of publication.

Example:

Morgan, J (ed.) (1993) How to be a successful author, Penguin Books, Ringwood.

e-BOOKS

Editors Surname, editors first name or initial (ed.) (Year of publication) Title of book: sub title of book (in italics), Name of e-book collection (in italics), [Online] Available at: URL (Accessed date)

Example
Bell, Judith (2002) Learning from your research: getting more from your data, Dawsonera [Online] Available at: http://www.onlineoriginlas.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135 (Accessed 3 November 2013)


BOOKS: an article within a book

For an article in an edited book add the following information about the article before the book details.
Article author’s surname, first name or initials (date article published) Title of the article: sub title of the article (in single quotes), IN: author’s surname, first name or initials, (date of publication of book). Title of book: sub title of book (in italics) Publisher, place of publication.

Example:
Roberts, John (2004) 'Cardiovascular Disease in Australia: a snapshot', IN: Healey, Justin (2005). Tobacco Smoking. The Spinney Press, Thirroul NSW.

(Note: the referencing details of a book are found inside on the title page and the reverse of the title page and not on the book cover)


JOURNAL / MAGAZINE ARTICLES

Include the following information in the correct order
Author’s surname, authors first name (Year of publication), Title of article (in single quotation marks), Title of the journal/magazine (in italics), Month, Volume number, Issue number, Page numbers.

Example:
Burns, S. (1993) ‘There is more than one way to learn’, Australian Wellbeing, October, No. 33, pp.42-44.

ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLES

Author’s surname, authors first name (Year of publication), Title of article (in single quotation marks), Title of the journal (in italics), Month, Volume number, Issue number, Page numbers, Name of collection (in italics) [Online] Available at: URL, (Accessed date)


Example
McRay, Ann, (2003) 'The pain of being a caffeine freak', New Scientist, Volume 172, No. 6, pp.27-29. NS Electronic Journals [Online] Available at: http://magazines.philipallan.co.uk/Magazines/newscientist?jtxrv=465.aspx (Accessed 11 November 2013)

ARTICLE in a NEWSPAPER
Author’s surname, authors first name or initial, (Year of publication) Title of article (in single quotation marks), Title of the Newspaper (in italics), Date of publication, Page number.

Example
Simpson, L (1997), ‘Tasmania’s railway goes private’, Australian Financial Review, 13 October, p. 10.

Article in an Encyclopedia

Author’s surname, Authors first name or initial (if known), (Year) Title of article (in single quotation marks), Title of Encyclopaedia (in italics), Page number.

Humber, William., (2001) 'Australian Prime Ministers', World Book Encyclopaedia, pp.221-223


ELECTRONIC SOURCES (Websites):

include the following information in the correct order
Author or publisher’s name (if known), (Year published or last updated). Title of site in italics. Available at: URL (Accessed date).


Example:
Palgrave MacMillan (2007) Skills4study, Available at: http://www.palmac.ash.org.au/dckc/Library/ref.html (Accessed 18 November 2013).

Electronic image/graphics
(Include: Creator if known, Year, Title of graphics if known in italics, [Format of image/graphic], Available at: URL (Date Accessed)

Mombassa, R. (2005). Jesus bottle, [Acrylic on canvas]. Available at: http://www.project-reason.org/gallery1/image/62/ (Accessed 11 October 2013)



MOVIE OR DOCUMENTARY


DVD’s: include the following information in the correct order

Producer’s last name, Initial(s). (Producer), & Director’s last name, Initial(s). (Director). (Year). Name of the film in italics [Motion Picture] Country of Origin, Studio


Example:

Kemp, J. (Producer), Murray, E. (Director). (2008). Surviving death: Stories of grief [Motion Picture] Australia, National Broadcasting Commission.



Note: the bibliographic details of a DVD are found on the front and back cover


Online Video clip (e.g. YouTube)


A video taken from a website such as YouTube should be referenced as a webpage.

Author or publisher’s name (if known), (Year published or last updated) Title of Video in single quotations, Title of Program if applicable in italics, Available at: URL (Accessed date).


Example

Australian Broadcasting Commission, (2013) 'Beating Cyberbullying', Compass, 17 March, Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JLWfRPgo__4&NR=1 (Accessed 15 November 2013)


INTERVIEW

Include the following information in the correct order

Name of person being interviewed, (Year of interview) Interview title in italics, by name of intervewer [in person] Place of interview, date of interview


Example

Brown, J. (2013) Personal experiences - Stolen Generation. Interviewed by Jordan Cox [in person] Rouse Hill, October 13.










@2013